Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Accents Speak Louder Than Speech

Accents Speak louder than Speech What is an accent? An accent is the way you pronounce words. Everyone has an accent. It is insoluble to speak without one. You might consider yourself and others not to but you do. Usually you get your ‘accent’ from how, where and when you grew up, but not everyone has the same accent as the people who live around them. It might change without you noticing from new life experiences. Why do places develop different accents? The main reason for this is human nature. Usually we have an accent, which is roughly the same as the people we live with, because we want to fit in.That is how you learn speech by picking up the way people pronounce each letter. If a group separates into two groups, ie. If half move to Island A and the other half to Island B, and they are kept isolated for centuries, the pronunciation will be so different that you could almost say they were speaking different languages. This is what happened an interminable amount of t ime ago. People had no contact with people who lived far away because there were no phones, no radio, and the only travel was by foot.Another reason is that in the places that other countries invaded such as where the Vikings settled. People were influenced by the way they pronounced the vowels, and that is how the accent adapted. In Lancashire there is a theory that when people used to work in very big noisy cotton mills they had to speak in very loud, high pitched, shrilly voices to be heard and they got used to this and influenced the people around them. There used to be a negative perception of regional accents and RP was favoured, now BBC is positively discriminating in favour of regional accents.British town centres which used to be very different are becoming uniform, but what distinguishes them, are the accents and dialects. Also London is now a big influence to accents in England, because people are commuting in and out every day for work, so accents are disappearing in pla ces such as Oxford, Surrey and Sussex. U and Non-U U stands for upper class and non-u stands for middle class. U’s used a looking glass rather than a mirror, wore spectacles rather than glasses, were richer rather than wealthy.Anyone who was not U for example people who talked about serviettes rather than napkins, would betray themselves as in a U’s view, ‘not one of us’. Toilet was actually a very smart word for Edwardians, then the servants picked it up and used it and it went out of fashion. Being marked as u or non-u is not only about your vocabulary but also about the way you pronounce things, an accent. For example butter is ‘orf’ rather than ‘off’. Also you would say that you have a very nice ‘hice’ rather than home. Today people say that a ‘gentleman’ never pushes a trolley at a supermarket but uses a basket.He never eats between meals, which are breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Received Pronunciatio n RP is the shortened name for Received Pronunciation. It is regionally described as the regional neutral accent. It is widely used as a reference point in dictionaries and as a model for teaching English as a foreign language. The meaning of Received traditionally was ‘’that which is generally accepted† or â€Å"that accepted by the best society†. When people say that someone hasn’t got an accent it is usually referring to RP.

Discuss Dicken’s portrayal Essay

Charles Dickens wrote Great Expectations in 1860. He wrote it about attitudes in Victorian England, towards children especially. Children were highly disciplined, and the main character in Great Expectations, Pip, was a typical example of a child of this time. Society in England at this time was built into two main classes- upper and lower. The middle class society, that is most common today, was just beginning to break through. Pip and his family, consisting of his sister, Mrs Joe Gargery, and her husband, Mr Joe Gargery, were a typical lower class family. They had a very normal lifestyle, with little or no education, a small house, with very little money, and a simple life. Great Expectations was set in Southern England, in the ‘marsh country, within, as the river wound, twenty miles from the sea. ‘ From this sentence, you can begin to build up a picture of Pip’s surroundings. Dickens uses harsh adjectives, such as ‘bleak, dismal, dark and savage’ to describe Pip’s world. By doing this, we get a real picture of how Pip lives. In a way, Dickens uses the environment around Pip, and compares it to Pip’s life. This brings me onto my next point. Pip must have had a very lonely childhood. His mother, father, and five brothers all died, and his sister, Mrs Joe, has unwillingly bought him up. She makes it blatantly obvious she doesn’t want him throughout his life, by making certain comments. â€Å"I may truly say I’ve never had this apron of mine off me, since born you were. It’s bas enough to be a blacksmith’s wife (and him being a Gargery) without being your mother. † Pip’s only friend is Biddy, and he also has a strong bond with Mr. Joe. Both him and Mr Joe are ‘fellow sufferers’ of Mrs. Joe’s strict ways, and this brings them closer together. They can confide in each other, and Joe is like Pip’s mentor. â€Å"Ever the best of friends, a’nt us, Pip? † Despite Mrs. Joe’s image of being harsh, a very, very independent, it is obvious she could not live without Mr. Joe, because, as with all households at this time, he is the ‘breadwinner’ and as she does not work, she could not survive without him. Pip is a very innocent, nai ve young boy. He does not understand things that happen in his life, he simply accepts them. Why Mrs Joe uses the ‘tickler’ on him, he does not know. When the reader gets to the part about the convict and the ‘hulks’, he doesn’t know why people are locked up, and cannot see the bad side of people. He fears Mrs.Joe, but he knows without her he would be dead, and she makes a point of telling him this. â€Å"If it warn’t for me you’d have been to the churchyard long ago, and stayed there. † When Pip meets the convict, he is understandably terrified. He immediately intimidates Pip, but although Pip is scared, he still treats him with respect, and calls him ‘sir. ‘ The convict threatens Pip, but still Pip is polite. † If you would kindly please to let me keep upright, sir, perhaps I shouldn’t be sick, and perhaps I could attend more. † This gives the reader the impression that Pip is very polite, and respectful to everyone, and he hides his feelings. For example, on Christmas day, when Mr Wopsle and uncle Pumblechook are saying how ungrateful he is, he does not retaliate and simply bites his tongue, because he does not want to be disrespectful to his elders. I think that this is the way Dickens wanted to portray Pip, so we would believe what Pip is saying, and see him as being innocent, and not really capable of lying to us. Pip and the convict can be seen as fairly similar, in a strange way. Once the convict learns of Pip’s background he begins to feel sorry for him, and I think that Pip feels sorry for the convict, because of his situation. It is also obvious that the convict trusts Pip, because he sends him for food, even when he knows Pip could easily tell on him, and he could get recaptured and sent back to the prison ship. Pip doesn’t tell on him, however, and returns with food. When the convict is finally recaptured, he makes up a story about breaking into the forge, and stealing the food, and he does not say Pip stole the food for him. Although the meetings between the two were short, they developed an understanding, and trusted each other. The way Dickens portrays the convict and Pip’s ‘friendship’ gives us an idea as to how trusting Pip is, and his kind nature and personality. â€Å"Something clicked in his throat, , as if he had works in him like a clock, and was going to strike. Then he smeared his ragged rough sleeve over his eyes. † â€Å"The something that I had noticed before, clicked in the man’s throat again, and he turned his back. † I think this ‘click’ Pip refers is the convict having a lump in his throat, and showing emotion, and the click is him swallowing this lump. This shows that although the convict could be dangerous, he has emotions, and Pip can tap into this emotion. As the novel develops, Miss Haversham and Estella are introduced. Mrs. Joe is very pleased when Pip is given the chance to go to Miss Haversham’s house and play. She believes it will give him the chance to become a ‘gentleman’ and make something of his life. â€Å"If this boy an’t grateful this night, he never will be! † Pip goes off to Miss Haversham’s, and although the house in which she lives in decrepit, and in a very bad state, he is very impressed because it is so large, and unlike what he is used to. He is continually polite, even when Estella is rude to him. † ‘He calls the knaves, Jacks, this boy! Said Estella with disdain, before our first game was out. ‘And what coarse hands he has! And what thick boots! † She patronises him, and it dents Pip’s confidence, and he begins to feel he is not good enough for anything. This makes him insecure, and he wants to go home. Dickens makes the reader see his insecurity by saying â€Å"Her contempt was so strong, that it became infectious, and I caught it. † This makes the reader see that before the meeting, Pip is fairly content with himself, and his life, be it a lonely one, but after Estella’s comments he realises he is not as good as her, and he probably will never make anything of his life. When he realises this, you can gradually see his ambitions growing, and whereas before he was perfectly happy to become Joe’s apprentice, he knows he won’t be happy, and wants to become someone who is respected. To sum all of this up, Pip is disciplined, and fearful of certain things. He can be intimated easily, but is still respectful. He has ambitions, and plans to make something of his life, but he is also insecure about his background, and whether he has the strength of character to pull himself out of the lower class society. He is very innocent, and gets bewildered easily. Dickens shows all of this by making Pip seem a lonely young boy, with no real family or friends, and he uses imagery to portray this. We watch Pip grow up, and learn about life, and try to make sense of things that are happening around him. Dickens makes the reader feel sorry for Pip, and lets us see we can trust Pip, because he himself trusts everyone and does not doubt anyone. We can read this book and see life through a nai ve young boys eyes, and feel we are being told the absolute truth. This is the power of Dickens’ writing- we believe the protagonist, and feel it would wrong not to believe him.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Life unworthy of life: phobia and Mass murder in hitlers’ Germany

James M. Glass was known for his expertise in politics and psychology of illusion. Glass’ interests include political theory, philosophy, and political psychology. His current researches also include about the study of the psychological preconditions for engagement with civil society.This is the reason why he was able to come up with a written narrative regarding the historical background on the Nazi regime. As a result, the historical account that has been written by the particular author is a fine display of the history of the people of the time of Hitler.About the BookIn Hitler’s regime, it could be seen and imagined how hard the individual Jews struggled for their survival. If the situation would be compared to the present society today, it could be observed that the present society is already lucky it is   not experiencing what the Jews have   undergone during the those times.During the time of the German Nazi era, the rules and the code of the government were not merely implemented in good ways. The abusiveness of the power is a mere factor why so many Jewish people suffered the pains and agonies brought about by the regime.They were a part of a community that has freedom and will   to do whatever they wanted to do, but during that time racial discrimination made a big impact and easily affected the German Jews. Glass’ report on the said important account of the situation has mainly pointed out several important factors that contributed to the succession of the history towards the Nazi regime.THE ENLIGHTENMENT: ACTION AND REACTIONIn the time of Hitler’s Dynasty, some of the government officials do not know what the importance of life was. Killing for them is very easy and vigorous, and they did not consider it as a crime. However, today, the situation that happened before has mainly affected the views of the present society regarding their respect of life.This touching history enlightens the people on how they will respec t each other in different ways all over the world. It is a challenge to the people to always remember how the Jews faced the bitterness of political adversary, political error and abusiveness of power by the leader of the nation

Monday, July 29, 2019

The ways of promotion 5 specific franchised hotels (Hilton, SolMelia, Literature review

The ways of promotion 5 specific franchised hotels (Hilton, SolMelia, Marriott, Mandarin Oriental, Jumeirah) through technology - Literature review Example To achieve this goal, the company espouses saving scarce water resources for future needs. The company also lessens current energy use to allowable levels. The company espouses the use of reusable energy. The company implements activities that will serve as guides for future environmental protection programs (Pride, 2012, p. 33). Further, Hilton Hotel’s Senior Vice President Mike Ashton emphasized the company’s social marketing strategies include offering its hotel guests perks. The perks include access to seamless internet, mini bars, movies, fax machines, and other communication amenities. The Hilton Hotel amenities will outshine the privileges of its competitors in the global hotel market place, including Marriot group of hotels, Sheraton hotel group, and Intercontinental hotel group. Hilton’s Ashton reiterates that the current marketing strategy builds unwavering customer confidence in the Hilton brand, generating the customer’s emotion –based p rerogative (Tungate, 2008, p. 148). Further, Marriott Hotels group’s Chairman Bill Marriott writes posts onto the company’s social networking blog sites. The posts are arranged according to blog publication date. In addition to the date arrangement, the blog posts are also arranged according to blog topics. Mr. Marriott’s posts pertain to several customer topics. The topics include food, travel, sports, politics, movies, and books. Mr. Marriott’s blog sites are classified by the blog site visitors as reliable and up to date. However, people classify the neutral social networking sites as more reliable compared to Mr. Marriott’s self-serving website blogs (Rosen, 2011). Another news item states that Hilton uses advertising to increase hotel reservations (Anonymous, Hilton Garden Inn "Speaks Success" With New Adverstising Campaign, 2011). The Hilton group of hotels uses the popularity of mobile phone texting and other social networking environments t o transform the current Hilton group of hotels marketing campaign a two notches higher. The Hilton group of hotels communicates with its current and future customers by using acronyms. The acronyms are used to explain the many benefits of having one’s sound sleep within one of the cozy rooms of the Hilton group of hotels. The hotel uses the social networking sites to reach out and move the undecided tourists to make a reservation in any of the Hilton group of hotels’ global locations. The company’s 2011 marketing strategy focuses on two things. First, the company will understand the current and future customers’ languages. Next, the company will includes speaking the current and future customers’ language in communicating the company’s many benefits to the attentive future customers. Hilton group of hotels’ Vice President Judy Christa Cathey, in charge of global marketing, reshapes the current company policy to speaking the customersà ¢â‚¬â„¢ language. This means that the company’s officers and employees will do their best to put themselves in the current and future customers’ shoes. The line and staff employees of Hilton group of hotels will think as the prospective customers think. This way, the company’s line and staff employees will be able to think ahead of the customers. The company’s officers will not have to wait until the customers’ will explain what is in their demanding mind. The company will offer amenities that will meet the customers’ current and future needs. The policy will increase hotel re

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Character education Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Character education - Essay Example Character education has been part of educational curriculums since long. Schools have played an essential role in passing on the cultural and ethical values of a society through the generations. It was seen as a moral responsibility of the teachers to involve and impart character education. But trends changes in the second half of the last century and character education completely disappeared from schools. Main reason for this is that teacher’s involvement in character development would infringe the right of the parents. Also the church/state debate added fuel to the argument. Martin Luther King said that â€Å"Intelligence plus character – that is the true goal of education† (Norris et al., 2004). Hence, it becomes the moral responsibility of the teacher to be involved in the character development of the students. And it also makes logical sense as children spend majority of their time in schools interacting with teachers, and hence teachers will have a long lasting impact on the children. Another reason why teachers must take an active part in the development of children character is that there is a decline in the family structure. Due to pressures of the 21st century work environment, majority of the parents are not able to interact with their children as they would desire to. Parents have not been able to share ethical values with the children. This is one of the reasons that youth character has seen a downward trend in the recent years (Ryan, 1993). Therefore it becomes the moral responsibility of the teacher to involve in character development. Research has shown that the learning environment makes an impact and has a positive effect on the social values and in turn the character of a child. That is, students who work in a cooperative learning group develop a character with mutual concern for one another (Johnson et al., 1981). Therefore, teacher is a critical part of the learning environment and hence needs to be actively and consciously

Saturday, July 27, 2019

STUXNET Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

STUXNET - Research Paper Example As the engineer hooked the computer to the Internet, the worm spread far and wide. How the Stuxnet Worm Spread The Stuxnet worm started to spread in March 2010, but it took its first variant about three months from then to appear. As people learnt about the existence of the worm on 15 July 2010, the servers for two mailing lists were attacked with the distributed denial-of-service on the industrial-systems security. Although at that time, the source of attack could not be worked out, yet it was suspected to be the Stuxnet worm. As a result of the attack, one of the two mailing lists got disabled, thus interrupting a very important informative source for the factories and the power plants. Two more variants of the Stuxnet worm surfaced; the first in March 2010 and the second in April 2010. In the authors’ opinion, the second and substantially improved variant showed up because of slow progression of the Stuxnet worm. The third variant that surfaced in April 2010 had only minor improvements. There is a build time-stamp in thee worm that starts from 3 February 2010. According to the report delivered by the Sky News on 25 November 2010 in the United Kingdom, an anonymous source whose IT security organization was also unidentified sent the news to Sky News that the black market had received a variation of the Stuxnet worm, but there was lack of consensus among the security experts over this matter. How the Stuxnet Worm Works Stuxnet makes use of vulnerability just like Windows uses the shortcut files to expand to new systems. The Stuxnet worm’s design was bottom-up so that it could effectively attack the systems implemented for the management of industrial networks like chemical manufacturing facilities and power plants as well as the systems of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA). In the start, the Stuxnet worm was thought to progress through such removable drives as USB sticks. However, about two weeks after the Stuxnet worm was first id entified, researchers of the Kaspersky Lab working in Moscow found that an unknown security flaw in the sharing of printer resources by the Windows could also help the Stuxnet worm spread. Microsoft found a way to fix this vulnerability with MS10-061 which varies in risk from one type of windows to another. â€Å"At least one aspect of what Stuxnet does is to take control of the process and to be able to do†¦whatever the author or programmer wants it to do. This has potentially devastating consequences, and there needs to be a lot more attention focused on it† (Weiss cited in â€Å"‘Stuxnet’ Worm Far†). The Target of the Stuxnet Worm The main target of the Stuxnet worm is the Siemens software. One trait that distinguishes the Stuxnet worm from most viruses that have been identified to date is that it remains silent till the time the worm locates Siemens software in the Windows system. Once the Siemens software is found, the Stuxnet worm exploits up to four 0-day attacks. The Stuxnet worm infected the SCADA systems in 14 functional plants of Siemens, though the infections could not hold the infected plants’ productions. According to the IDG News reports, the Stuxnet worm has infected systems at the Siemens plants in North America, Korea, and the UK, while the maximum infections have so far been made in the plants operating in

Friday, July 26, 2019

Cause Related Marketing Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Cause Related Marketing - Assignment Example The paper tells that cause-related marketing is a two-way process in which a business is approached by those whoa re working for a cause and so in collaboration, the company markets its goods or services using that cause and end of the day a decoded portion of the profits goes to the cause. This is a two-way process because it helps both the companies and the causes. On one hand, with the sales of the companies, a lot of charity is generated for the cause, which might not be that much if asked just in the name of charity. On the other hand, it helps the company a great deal in making more profits because the companies gain the sympathies of the consumers that they attach with cause and so they buy the companies products more to help the cause. Cause-Related marketing helps the companies significantly in making more profits. When a cause is attached with the products of a company, the company gets the â€Å"halo† effect by being related to a noble cause and so the people attach same feelings for their products that they attach for the cause. A research has concluded that 89% of the consumers would prefer to buy a cause-related product by switching a brand if the prices are same. This benefits the company significantly because even if the prices are low to be kept equal with the competing brands, the tag of a cause would make up for the profits. More sales would be generated because of people, like buying for a cause and so the increased sales would automatically result in giving the company more profits. This cause-related marketing works in a win-win manner. It basically believes in â€Å"doing well while doing good†. Although some might think of it as only a business and marketing tactic in which the companies play with the consumer’s emotions to generate profits, it actually works in both directions. Apart from cause-related marketing, otherwise the companies also try to touch the soft sides of their consumers through advertisements etc s o this is not a new concept. Getting related to a cause does help that cause to earn charity and it helps the companies in generating more sales and thus profits too. Cause-related marketing helps the company’s profitability by polishing its reputation amongst the customers. It gives the company better visibility because people start spreading the word about such companies to raise awareness for the cause.

Aspects of Contract and Negligence for Business - An Evaluation Assignment - 1

Aspects of Contract and Negligence for Business - An Evaluation - Assignment Example From the aforementioned case overview, it can be comprehended that the case is related to contract law. There are certain elements that are identified to be essential for the formulation of a valid contract. The four essential elements that are essential for a valid contract are offered along with acceptance, legal considerations, legal purpose and legal capacity. In this respect, a contract to be valid is required to have the aforementioned factors under consideration. Moreover, the elements of a contract are required to comply with the objective of ensuring that the contract is legally accepted (Marson, 2013). In relation to the case provided, it can be affirmed that Peter has not entered into a legally recognized valid contract, which implies that he is not liable to force the company in selling the product that has been advertised. Thus, Peter cannot force the company to provide the product at the price of ?1. It can also be affirmed relating to the case that the advertisement ma de by the company is just a mere invitation. According to the contract law, the advertisements that make by the companies in relation to a product or service are often related to the notion of ‘invitation to treat’. ‘Invitation to treat’ is identified as an expression along with a willingness to develop or enter into a contract with another individual. Moreover, the invitation should be made with appropriate terms as well as conditions with the objective of ensuring that the offer made by the offeror is accepted by an offeree. Contextually, an ‘invitation to treat’ is not identified as an offer but it is recognized as a preliminary procedure. In this regard, an ‘invitation to treat’ is not a necessary procedure for developing an agreement as the offeror making the ‘invitation to treat’ capable of forming a valid contract. ‘Invitation to treat’ is generally used by businesses to improve sales figures and at tract customers through advertisements and auctions among others (Marson, 2013)

Thursday, July 25, 2019

More horse power Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

More horse power - Essay Example The phrase, "the most powerful in its class", may be true as "class" is not defined. According to the case, trucks similar to the Mammoth are used for hauling heavy equipment but the Mammoth is not suited for hauling. This would mean that the Mammoth would be in a different class from the hauling trucks, or in a class of its own. However, it does have a powerful engine which supports the claim that it is the most powerful in its class. All the above support the tagline "The Mammoth. Power, Beauty, Style." The advertisement focuses on qualities not necessarily connected with the product but I don't think this has been done unduly. The company used its good reputation for luxury sedans and sports cars, products which evoke power, beauty and style. The Mammoth advertisement may be targeting the same market as those for its traditional products, considering that the truck was not really built for hauling heavy equipment. The Mammoth can be viewed as simply another vehicle sporting a different design, a hauling truck design. But in the same way that luxury sedans and sports cars serve their intended customers for power, beauty and style, the Mammoth is also being sold to do this, especially since the advertisement depicted the owner getting into the truck in a tuxedo and driving to the opera. It is permissible fo

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

International Business - World Trade Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

International Business - World Trade - Essay Example Also the governments' interest in the health or the profits of the industry as well as the capitol flow which in turn affect the states' economy is highlighted in this case study. With regards to the civil aviation industry, the various products, their launch aid from the governments and other agencies directly or indirectly through favoured contracts and subsidies and tax cuts and waivers on loans also called soft loans are among the issues discussed in the case study. However, the direct and indirect support and patronization by the governments are also subject to some of the World Trade Organization's provisions prohibiting any support from the governments under the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (SCM), the European Union (EU) and the US governments' Agreement on Trade in Large Civil Aircrafts which restricts the governments to cap the direct or indirect financial aid to the companies producing these aircrafts; are all related to the issues relating to the governments protectionist policies as these are in one or the other way related to international trade as well as the economies of the respective states. Each government has identified their need to provide support to the large and complex civil aircraft industry as investing in it can give them an advantage and also create as they observe employment for their skilled and unskilled resource while help build new technologies and generate huge amounts of corporate taxes for the state's revenue. However, the international trade responsibilities of each country or state have also been looked into with respect to the affect of the different governments supporting the industry at various levels. The trade practices themselves are questioned as relating to the governments protectionist policies which are interested in protecting their interests. Further, the EU governments' public policies identify the need for providing key services like healthcare, public transport, banking, etc. which enable them to play a strong role in building the economy of the nation. Hence, EU governments consider greater intervention in the market is necessary for building a growing economy. France took steps in this direction by regulating the private sector work hours to a minimum of 35hrs a week and also increasing the corporate taxes, along with Germany. Owing to the governments intervention in the markets, civil aviation in the US and EU has benefited. Boeing received huge orders from the US Department of Defence during World War II and the Cold war which helped it to consolidate its position in the market. Further, after 9/11 it is being supported by tax money through subsidies and soft loans. On the other hand, the EU governments have formed alliances to found Airbus to make large civil aircrafts as part of their public policies. France, Ger many, Britain and Spain hold stock in the company jointly and sanction subsidies and soft loans individually. In the early 2000s the Airbus annual sales for A350 exceeded that of

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Supply and or demand paper on Apple iphone 5 Research

Supply and or demand on Apple iphone 5 - Research Paper Example The features of the iphone 5 are high tech and do very well with technology savvy customers. Iphone’s user friendliness and looks have won complete control over users. The market has seen the peak of apple Iphone 5 demands when just after the three days of release over 5 million of them have been sold, it has been listed on the charts of apple company (2012). A detailed interview from CEO of Apple Company Mr. Tim Cook had said that the success of apple I phone 5 has been brilliant and they are over whelmed with the response. So, he showed an intended desire to make productions rapid and provide apple Iphone 5 in hands of every person who dreams to hold it. The demand is increasing with every passing day and company is under lot of pressure to manufacture Iphone for everyone. Such things consume time, the initial supply has been completely sold out and regular shipment transportations are going on. Also, there is facility for consumers that they can order online and are allotte d a specific delivery date, so this is how demand is being satisfied (Harrison et al., 2012). Table 1.1: The journey of Apple iphone through the years There has been an incredible increase in demand of apple Iphone 5. There has been placing of pre-booking orders by customers for Iphone. Two million was the ratings for demand for apple Iphone 5, which is far more than the Iphone 4’s. Approximately it was double in number then the previous one which is a land mark and a huge success in its own self. There are growing numbers of orders and deliveries everyday and the numbers of lover of apple Iphone 5 range are increasing by the day. The demand and supply charts are rising higher into about 22 major countries over the world. Countries contain Switzerland, Portugal, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Finland, Spain, Sweden and Belgium. (Paczkowski, 2012). Table 1.2: Demand graph for the Apple iphone 5 Cause of Demand Shift The major reason behind the shifting demand of consumer all over is due to the latest technology and high definition real time inspiring features. The reviews are mostly mixed in terms of satisfaction and dissatisfaction of consumers, but the entire blend has resulted into a huge success of time for Apple Company. After the launch of apple iphone 4, there has been a serious competition between the several smart phone companies with regard to the desirability and durability for the working and usage. Still the exclusive release of Iphone 5 has managed to wash all the competitors. The prominent features include the four inch flat interesting wide screen. The length also increased, the wide screen and huge clear displays are already a mark of apple Iphone series. The opening for the headphones has been shifted to the either side accordingly and is extremely useful for the users to handle, and make way out to get to your ears. As compared to the previous version, the speakers are far bigger and sound quality is much more profound, clear and deeper. Then there is lightening connector, which is additional in nature. One the whole it has bigger screen quite prominent, 4G compatibility power race and above all better and improved front facing camera for perfect view (Hughes, 2012). Market reputation and impact is the real developer of status

Monday, July 22, 2019

Virtue and Friendship Essay Example for Free

Virtue and Friendship Essay Friendship is a type of relationship between two people who care about each other. But such a dry definition doesnt do the concept of friendship justice. Consider these examples: A friend is the first person you want to call when you hear good news. A friend remembers that you dont like. In other words, friendship is wonderful, and much ink has been spilled in citing the virtues of having friends. Thats not to say friendship is easy, though. It demands time and effort, and it requires that people put someone other than themselves first sometimes. But in exchange for that work, a friend can provide an immense amount of support and comfort in good times and in bad. Many qualities are necessary for a good friendship, including honesty, trustworthiness, loyalty and unconditional acceptance. A friendship should make both people in the relationship happy; both people should have fun when they spend time together. To be perfectly frank, thats a tall order. Human beings can clash very easily, which is why its hard for some people to maintain many friendships. Its possible that friendship can exist between two people at one stage of life, but life changes and personal growth may make friendship impossible at another stage. It can be hard to meet the people who would make the perfect friend. To draw the conclusion, one can say that friendship is a relationship built on trust and understanding. And it’s hard work for both, to accept each other as they are.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Care Context of Social Worker

Care Context of Social Worker Critically explore the care context in which social work operates, demonstrating an understanding of sociological and social policy concepts, drawing examples from practice. Introduction What constitutes social work is largely defined by the state and by Government policies. That is to say it defines the legal framework through which the responsibilities of social workers are defined. These refer to the people that social workers have a responsibility towards, how those responsibilities should be carried out, and the broader framework which underpins social work practice (Brayne and Martin, 1995). The general legislative framework as it applies to social work practice actually applies to the local authority that employs social workers, but, nevertheless it is part of the general legal guidelines under which social workers engage in practice. This paper will look at practice and the framework within which social workers operate from the perspective of users with mental health problems. The Local Authority Social Services Act 1970 states: Every local authority shall establish a social services committee, and †¦there shall stand referred to that committee all matters relating to the discharge by the authority of- (a) their functions under the enactments specified in the first column of Schedule 1 to this Act This paper will explore the problems that many users with mental health problems encounter and it will consider how policy and its resultant initiatives can impact on the lives of services users. This discussion will be set within the context which welfare services are delivered in Britain. It is difficult to give a definition of the rights and responsibilities of social workers without some way of ensuring that these are fulfilled. At the very least everyone has the right to be protected from abuse and to be treated with respect. This is extremely difficult when current Government discourses, while expressing concern for those with mental health problems, then employ discourses which ignore factors such as race, gender and class and social circumstances, that are pertinent to any proper understanding of a person’s condition. Hannigan and Cutliffe (2002) are of the opinion that the medical model of health, which locates disability in the pathology of the individual, is flourishing in mental healthcare and under the terms of the 1983 Mental Health Act this often results in medical treatments that may involve, for example, the use of drugs or electro-convulsive therapy without the person’s consent. In Britain the law has a definition of mental disorder, which includes four separate conditions: mental illness, mental impairment, severe mental impairment, and psychopathic disorder (Pilgrim and Rogers, 1999:9). The first of these conditions is not defined. The second two conditions refer specifically to people with learning difficulties. The final condition refers to people who may be antisocial, unusually aggressive, and who may pose a threat to themselves and those around them. It is assumed that this legal definition accords with psychiatric definitions of mental disorder when this is not necessarily the case. It is within this context that mental health workers, and often approved social workers also, are left to determine the conditions under which a person may or may not be detained under the terms of the 1983 Mental Health Act (Pilgrim and Rogers, 1999).With regard to people with mental health problems (for whom similar provisions for those with other disabilities apply) Schedule One of the Local Authorities Social Services Act of 1970 is relevant and states that local authority social services should make proper provision for those who are mentally or physically disabled. It would s eem that contrary to the terms of the Act the legislative framework does not make such a provision in that it uses unclear definitions with which a social worker operates. It is a context which disenfranchises those who are already at a social disadvantage. Studies on inequalities in health suggest that that class, gender and race determine how a person is treated in a care context. In the mental health arena there are a number of studies (e.g. Pilgrim and Rogers, 1999) which tend to suggest that black males are particularly disadvantaged in this area. Section 136 of the 1983 Mental Health Act gives the police the power to detain someone for 72 hrs in a safe place if they are considered to be a danger to themselves or other people, and irrespective of whether they have actually done anything. Some research (Bean et al, 1991) has shown that under this section Afro-Caribbeans are two and a half times as likely as whites to be detained in this manner. Giddens (2001) maintains that in many of our social structures an aura of institutional racism still operates. It is arguably the case that this affects the treatment of black males with mental health problems and necessitates the social worker exerting particular care in this context in deciding whether a person should be detained under the Mental Health Act or whether they are fit to be left to care in the community . Since the Human Rights Act of 1998 local authorities have a duty to act in ways that are conversant with the Act. Social workers help with the problems faced by people with disabilities. When working with people with mental health problems or other disabilities social workers need to be aware of the Human Rights Act and the Community Care Act of 1990. Social workers are faced with making decisions concerning what defines a person with disabilities and also how to define their needs. The community care system is not straightforward and the legal requirements often not precise. If a social worker prescribes the wrong form of care e.g. detainment under the Mental Health Act when a person does not really fulfil that criteria, they could be infringing that person’s human rights. Policy needs to be carefully and more clearly formulated in the care context so that social workers can effectively carry out their duties to service users. Conclusion This paper has attempted to explore, in too few words, the care context within which social workers operate. It has done this from the perspective of someone working in the mental health arena. The care context of mental health is fraught with problems which are, or can be, exacerbated by the legislative framework. In many respects social workers from all backgrounds face similar difficulties and there is no ‘right’ way, in many senses the contemporary care context is suffused with the view that ‘you’re damned if you do, and damned if you don’t. 1,000 words Bibliographhy Bean, Bingley, Bynoe et al. 1991. Out of Harm’s Way:Mind’s Research into police and psychiatric action under section 136 of the Mental Health Act. London, Mind. Brayne and Martin 6th ed. 1999 Law for Social Workers London, Blackstone Press Mandelstam and Schwehr 1995 Community Care Practice and the Law London, Jessica Kingsley Disability Discrimination Act 1995 Giddens, A. 2001 4th ed. Sociology, Cambridge, Polity Press. Hannigan B and Cutcliffe J 2002 Challenging contemporary mental health policy: time to assuage the coercion? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 37(5), 477-484, London, Blackwell Science, 2002 Pilgrim, D. and Rogers, A. 1999. A Sociology of Mental Health and Illness. Buckingham, Open University Press.

The User Experience in Mobile Computing

The User Experience in Mobile Computing ABSTRACT Mobile phones have become a necessity for almost every person throughout the world. Cell phones have become almost a status symbol in addition to the convenience and security that comes from owning them. In this article, We would like to discuss the importance of the user experience and the user interface in Mobiles/Soft Wearables. 1INTRODUCTION In this paper, We would discuss the user experience/ user interface with mobiles/soft wearables in the past, current and future. We would also look at design approach to soft wearables, material explorations. At the end we would see the challenges or difficulties in mobile user experience. 2DISCUSSION Scientists have researched a lot regarding the user experience in Mobiles/Wearables. Early research in this field frequently encouraged people to share their devices to create a collective experience or reach a common goal. Most of this first-wave  research initially looked at the use of smartphones (and tablets) to study mobile collocated interactions. As a result, early mobile collocated interactions research tended to be device-centric. Nowadays, Computers have transitioned from being in a large room (e.g., ENIAC), to our desks (e.g., PCs), to a bag (e.g., laptops), and to our pockets (e.g., mobile phones). Wearable computers (e.g., the WIMM watch) have continued the trend towards ever-smaller computers, ones that can be worn on our wrists (e.g., Apple Watch) or other parts of the body (e.g., Google Glass, Microsoft HoloLens). While the first-wave of mobile collocated interactions seemed device-centric, this current second wave is user experience-centric. Such novel mobile collocated interactions may include clothing, accessories, prosthetics, and jewelry. One s uch example is Its About Time which explores extending smartwatch interactions to turn personal wearables into public displays. Adopting ideas of proxemics could allow for designers to better shape each individuals personal motivations and perceptions of their interactions with both devices and others, to better support their experiences. Soft wearables include clothing and textile-based When designed well, they leverage the cultural, sociological and material qualities of textiles, fashion and dress; diverse capabilities and meanings of the body; as well as the qualities and capabilities afforded by smart and programmable elements. When designing soft wearables a designer must consider a range of requirements that do not typically demand focus when designing products that are not worn, including: sensitivity to material detail; an eye for fit and comfort on bodies with diverse shapes and movement capabilities openness to a diversity of meanings that may be generated; as well as consideration of wearers intimate relations with technology. Soft wearables allow for greater scope within these requirements. Using smart textiles and soft electronic interfaces in wearables opens up the opportunity to engage with wearers senses in diverse and subtle ways. A knitted garment for example can deform and reform as the body moves and pushes against the fabric. When augmented with smart capabilities, such deformations may be used to sense engagement and trigger events. But, There are a number of technological challenges for designing user experience such as binding, security, spatial registration, heterogeneous platforms and sensors, non-touch interaction as well as development and runtime environments. In addition to these, there are social challenges such as privacy, social acceptability, social participation, social exclusion and social engagement. There are a number of Perceptual and Physiological challenges such as varying display resolutions, luminance, effective visual fidelities, visual interference, color or contrast in display overlap which can be experienced with body proximate ecosystems. 4 CONCLUSION Today, mobile application development technology is evolving at a very shocking pace. User experience is becoming an increasingly crucial feature when it comes to the digital landscape. It defines how the user feels and thinks about your product from his or her own perspective. It is about making something valuable, easy to use and effective for your target market. However, in a market where quality and performance always come before brand loyalty, creating a fluid user experience (UX) is key to the success of any mobile app development project. REFERENCES [1] Andrà ©s LuceroEmail author, James Clawson, Joel Fischer and SimonRobinson Mobile collocated interactions with wearables: past, present, and future Nov 2016 [2] Oscar TomicoEmail author and Danielle Wilde Soft, embodied, situated connected: enriching interactions with soft wearables June 2016 [3] Jens GrubertEmail author, Matthias Kranz and Aaron Quigley Challenges in mobile multi-device ecosystems Aug 2016

Saturday, July 20, 2019

PMCN Case Study Essay -- PMCN Analysis

The theory of economics does not furnish a body of settled conclusions immediately applicable to policy. It is a method rather than a doctrine, an apparatus of the mind, a technique for thinking, which helps the possessor to draw correct conclusions. The ideas of economists and politicians, both when they are right and when they are wrong, are more powerful than is commonly understood. Indeed the world is ruled by little else. Practical men, who believe themselves to be quite exempt from any intellectual influences, are usually the slaves of some defunct economist." (John Maynard Keynes, the General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money p 383) Critically assess the extent to which â€Å"the ideas of economists† might improve the performance of an organisation of your choice. Table of Contents Introduction 3 Context 4 Literature Review 5 1. Microeconomic Concepts and the PMCN 5 1.1 Transactions Cost Theory 5 1.2 Profit Maximization 7 2. Macroeconomic Concepts and the PMCN 9 2.1 Fiscal Policy and the Budget. 9 2.2 Monetary Policy – Rules Based Framework/Taylor Rule. 11 3.Synthesis and Conclusion 13 References 14 Bibliography 18 Introduction This paper provides a critical assessment of the performance of organizations which could be linked to economic theories and concepts. Through a review of various literature, research and conclusions of economists such as Friedman (1970), Coase (1937), Williamson (1981, 1998, 1975), Sloman et al. (2013), Powell (1990), Taylor (2011, 2012) and so on, the researcher presents a critical assessment of the microeconomic and macroeconomic concepts which were found to affect performance of a typical organizations. The concepts were also linked to other aspects of economics ... ...ft/wp/2013/wp1365.pdf. [Accessed on 21st of April 2014]. Grossman, S.J and Hart, O.D (1983). An Analysis of the Principal-Agent Problem. Econometrica Vol. 51, No. 1 January 1983. Available on: [Accessed on 20th of April 2014]. Jensen, M.C and Meckling, W.H (1976). Theory of the Firm: Managerial Behavior, Agency Costs and Ownership Structure. Journal of Financial Economics, October, 1976, V. 3, No. 4, pp. 305-360. Available on: [Accessed on 20th April 2014]. Tadelis, S and Williamson, O (2010). Transactions Cost Economics. University of California Bekerley The IMF (2014). Fiscal Policy and Income Inequality. International Monetary Fund Policy Paper. Available on: [Accessed on 21st of April 2014].

Friday, July 19, 2019

Wedding Toasts - Best Man, Brother of the Groom Essay -- Wedding Toast

Wedding Toasts - Best Man, Brother of the Groom Good Evening! I’m standing up here tonight, pretty boastful I have to admit, of my brother, Bobo, and his bride Twiggy. I have come to sing their praises, and if I happen to embarrass either one of them in the process, I apologize right now! On behalf of our family, we want to welcome each of you to the wedding today. It is a true testament to Bobo and Twiggy that you have taken time from your busy schedule to come and witness their marriage. I have never seen a more beautiful bride than Twiggy, and my brother looks just plain button busting proud, doesn’t he? Bobo and Twiggy do not come lightly into this marriage. They have each led successful lives up to this point, and each is a wonderful individual alone. However, as wonderful and unique each of them is, together they make the perfect couple! Bobo, a man of patience,...

Downs Syndrome (Mongolism) Essay -- Biology Health Science

Downs Syndrome (Mongolism) All children that are born with Downs Syndrome (previously called ‘mongolism’) have a common characteristic appearance and may also share similar congenital birth defects. Dr John Downs, of whom the condition is so named after, found that children who were born with these similar characteristics and that after testing were complete. It was found that there was a common chromosome abnormality, which is known as ‘Trisomy 21’ (Cunningham, 1996). Every pregnant woman is at risk of having a Downs Syndrome child. For example 1 in 1,000 women who are 28yrs will give birth to a child with this condition. However, the risk is much greater with a woman who is 38yrs, increasing the risk by approximately 1 in 200 births. Until recently, it was thought that a woman’s age was the only indicator to the risk involved. However, advances in medical practise can now carry out tests out by looking at a woman’s hormone and protein levels during pregnancy. Also with the information of the expectant mother’s age and the use of maternal screening, two thirds of Downs Syndrome infants can be identified whilst still in the womb. Research into the origins of Downs Syndrome has been carried out worldwide all with one common question in mind; is the condition genetic, thus making it hereditary? However, research that has been carried out has found, that children born with this condition have the same genetic makeup as a child born without the condition. However, there is one difference and that is a child born with Downs Syndrome, will have an extra chromosome. By having just one chromosome extra is enough to tip the finely tuned balance of the human body and will in turn produce physical and intellectual characteristics that are found in Downs Syndrome. It is commonly known that genes are passed from parent to child. And those most have two copies of every gene. In general one copy is passed on from both mother and father at the time of conception. The genes are made up of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). The arrangement of chemicals in the DNA strand is different for every gene (Cunningham, 1996). The genes are grouped together in long thin, thread like strands called chromosomes. Therefore, it is these chromosomes that carry the essential information, which will determine how we look, how healthy we are and whether there will be c... ...statements in to context, it is meant that essentially this is the ‘social model of disability’. In simple terms, this means that it is the environment (both physically and society’s attitudes), which are the problems and not the condition that leads to physical mental impairments. With this model, the emphasis is on overcoming the negative environments so that a person with different needs, qualities and attributes can feel included in that community. As the human race goes forward into the new millennium, is not time that we pick up those less able and carry them with us, instead of leaving them behind hoping the problem may go away ?†¦ BIBLIOGRAPHY Carr. J. (1995): Downs Syndrome: Children Growing Up. London: Cambridge University Press. Cassell. S. (1996): New Approaches To Downs Syndrome. London: Brian Stratford & Pat Gunn. Cunningham. C. (1996): Downs Syndrome: An Introduction For Parents. London: Souvenir Press. Rees. P. (1992): Heart Children. Surrey: Heart Line Association. Selikowitz. M. (1997): Downs Syndrome: The Facts. London: Oxford University Press.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Consumer Behavour

Models of Consumer Behaviour UNIT 9 Objectives MODELS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR After reading this unit, you should be able to: †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ identify the different levels of consumer decision-making explain the process of consumer decision-making differentiate between types of buyer decision behaviour describe the buyer behaviour with the help of an input, process, output model Structure 9. 1 Introduction 9. 2 What Is a Decision? 9. 3 Levels of Consumer Decisions 9. 4 Process of Decision- Making 9. 5 Types of Purchase Decision Behaviour 9. 6 Stages in the Buyer Decision Process 9. 7 Models of Buyer Behaviour 9. 8 Summary 9. 9 Key Words 9. 0 Self-assessment Questions 9:11 Further Readings 9. 1 INTRODUCTION In this unit we shall examine how a consumer actually arrives at the decision to purchase a specific product or brand out of the so many available in the market. Or, in other words, we shall study the process of consumer decision-making. In the previous unit we had di scussed a simple model of consumer decision-making, comprising an input, process and an output. A consumer receives stimuli from the environment and the specifics of the marketing strategies of different products and services, and responds to these stimuli in terms of either buying or not buying the product. In between the stage of receiving the stimuli and responding to it, the consumer goes through the process of making his decision. 9. 2 WHAT IS A DECISION? A decision is the selection of an alternative out of the several number of alternatives available. It is only when theme are two or more alternatives available that there is the need to make a choice. In the field of consumer behaviour, we are only concerned with situation in which the consumer has to take a purchase decision where there is a choice available. 27 Understanding Consumers 9. 3 LEVELS OF CONSUMER DECISIONS As a buyer or consumer you are all the time making decisions such as what product to buy (a book or a shirt as a birthday present for your friend), Which brand (Lux, Liril, Hamam, Rexona or OK toilet soap) from where (Super Bazar, nearby corner shop, chemist), etc. Table 1 presents a summary of the different levels of purchase related decisions most commonly encountered by consumers. The table highlights the broad range of choices the consumers have to select from when making a decision, starting from the generic product category level to the brand level and retail outlet level. 9. 4 PROCESS OF DECISION-MAKING The most basic and important requirement for the marketer is to understand how consumers make choices. Ajzen and Fishbein have attempted to explain human choice behaviour in their theory of reasoned action which states that: â€Å"Generally speaking-human beings are usually quite rational and make systematic use of information available to them. People consider the implications of their actions before they decide to engage or not to engage in a given behaviour. † Thus, making a decision is a rational and conscious process in which the consumer evaluates each of the available alternatives to select the best amongst them. Each decision you make involves an elaborate mental thought process, a degree of active reasoning, though on the surface it may not always seem to be so. This may be because over a period of time you have taken certain decisions so many times that they now seem to be made almost automatically but that is not true at all. Even your daily decision of buying a loaf of bread involves the element of active reasoning as buying a new sofa set for your drawing room. However, in the former case, the extent and intensity of active reasoning may be much less as compared to the latter case. 28 In the case of bread, the only decision variables may be which brand, quantity and retail outlet. But in case of buying a sofa set the decision variables are far more in number. These may be: †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ ready-made or made to order from a furniture shop or to be built at home type of material for frame: Wood, Steel, Aluminium type of material for cushion: cloth, rexine, leather design: with or without arm-rests, height, depth of seat, seating capacity, loose or fixed cushion. Models of Consumer Behaviour Thus, depending on the type of decision being made, the degree and strength of active reasoning will vary. There are three factors which influence the degree of active reasoning that is undertaken by the consumer in his process of decision-making. These are: i) involvement, ii) alternative differentiation, and iii) time pressure i) Involvement: When a product is perceived to be of great personal importance to the customer, such as personal clothing, or its purchase involves a great deal of money or risk such as jewellery, car, house, company shares, the level of involvement in making the decision is likely to be very high. The consumer is likely to spend a great deal of time before arriving at the final decision. In contrast, when buying items which do not reflect much on the consumer's personality or their purchase involves small amounts of money . or the risk associated with them is not high, the degree of involvement of the consumer is likely to be low. Products such as shoes, polish, toilet soap, toothpaste, biscuits etc. would fall in this category. i) Differentiation: When the consumer perceives that the various alternatives which are available are very different from one another in terms of their features and benefits offered, he is likely to spend more time in gathering information about and evaluating these different features. On the other hand, in case of products which are not very different from one another either in terms of their features or benefits offered, the consumer is bound to perceive them as being almost the same and buy the first available product/brand which satisfies his minim um expectation. He will not like to spend much time in evaluating the various alternatives. The various brands of washing powder available in the market today are an excellent example of low level of differentiation with the consumer perceiving the different brands to be offering almost identical benefits. All the brands, such as Nirma, Vimal, Vijay, etc. look similar with identical packing and carry almost the same price tag. Till a few years ago, the two wheel scooter market in ,India was highly undifferentiated with Vespa and Lambretta offering almost identical scooter to the consumers in terms of basic features. But today the same market is highly differentiated. The consumers have a wide range of brands to choose from such as Kinetic-Honda, Lohia, Bajaj etc. each offering a variety of shapes, horse power and many other innovative features to choose from. A potential consumer of scooter would have to spend considerable time in evaluating each brand before he is in a position to make his decision. iii) Time Pressure: When you are under pressure to make a decision quickly, you cannot afford to spend a long time finding out about the various products or brands. You would probably buy whatever is readily available. While traveling in your car to a hill station your car tyre bursts and you need to buy a new one. At that time you would buy the brand that is available at whatever price without giving it too much thought. But under a different situation, when you need to buy new tyres, you would certainly like to find the features of nylon and radial tyres and evaluate various brands e. g. Modi, MRF, Dunlop and Apollo etc. on their individual advantages and disadvantages. 29 Understanding Consumers Activity 1 a) For each of the products/services written below, identify whether the purchase decision involves a high or low degree of involvement under normal circumstances: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) Scooter Tyre Steel almirah Transistor radio Bicycle Shirting material A pair of shoes Toothpaste A family planning device such as Nirodh Restaurant Voltage stabiliser. b) In respect of the above products, record which differentiated alternatives (brands) are available in the market. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 9. 5 TYPES OF PURCHASE DECISION BEHAVIOUR Consumer buying behaviour varies with the type of buying decision. Earlier, we stated that while a decision for buying bread was almost made automatically, the decision for buying a sofa set was more deliberate and time consuming. Similarly, there is a great deal of difference in buying a tube of toothpaste, clothes for yourself and a refrigerator for your home. We shall now distinguish three types of buying behaviour: i) Routinised response behaviour, ii) Limited problem solving, and iii) Extended problem solving. ) Routinised response behaviour (RRB): This occurs when the consumer already has some experience of buying and using the product. He is familiar with the various brands available and the attributes of each and has a well establ ished criteria for selecting his own brand. Consumers do not give much thought or time when buying such products and already have a preferred brand. The degree of involvement in buying such products is low. Frequently purchased and low cost products such as razor blades, coffee powder, toothpaste, soap, soft drinks, etc. fall in this category. Marketers ealing in products involving routinised response behaviour must ensure the satisfaction of existing customers by maintaining consistent quality, service and value. Also, they must attempt to attract new customers by introducing novel features, using point-of-purchase promotional material and special displays. ii) Limited Problem Solving (LPS): In this type of buying behaviour, the consumer is familiar with the product and the various brands available, but has no established brand preference. The consumer would like to gather additional information about the brands to arrive at his brand decision. For instance a housewife buys refined vegetable oil for her cooking. She is familiar with the concept of vegetable oil (as opposed to say vanaspati and ghee) and also knows that Postman, Dalda and Ruby are some of the prominent brands available. But to establish her choice of brand, she would like to check with her friends and regular shopkeeper about the attributes of each. Limited problem solving also takes place when a consumer encounters an unfamiliar (or new) brand in a known product category. The housewife who buys refined 30 vegetable oil, on her next visit to the market, sees a new brand of oil, Saffola. Apart from being a new brand, this brand of oil also claims the unique attribute of being low in cholesterol. To arrive at a decision, whether or not to buy this brand, the housewife needs to gather information about the new brand which will allow her to compare it with the known brands. The marketer's task in a situation where he is introducing a new brand in a well known product category is to design a communication strategy that gives complete information on all the attributes of the brand, thus increasing the consumer's confidence and facilitating his or her purchase decision. ii) Extensive Problem Solving (EPS): Extensive problem solving occurs when the consumer is encountering a new product category. He needs information on both the product category as well as the various brands available in it. This kind of decision is by far the most complex. For instance, you are thinking of buying a Flat colour television to replace your existing black and white TV set. You do not have much idea about how to judge the quality of a, colour TV set. You have heard about the various rands, such as Videocon, BPL, Samsung, LG, Sony, Thomson etc. but you do not know what t heir respective quality ranking is in colour TV. Each brand makes claims of foreign technology, latest features such as flat square tube and channel display. Further, t here is a range of models to choose from within each brand, models with remote control . different cabinet colour finish, vertical monitor styling etc. To arrive at a decision, you have to gather information at three levels and also establish a criteria for evaluating this information. The three levels of information gathering and evaluation are at generic product level, brand level and model level within each brand. The marketing strategy for such buying behaviour must be such that it facilitates the consumer's information gathering and learning process about the product category and his own brand. The marketer must be able to provide his consumer with a very specific and unique set of positive attributes regarding his own brand, so that the purchase decision is made in his favour. The concept of EPS is most applicable to new products. The product may be new at the generic product concept level (such as Maggi noodles) or it may be an established product concept but new for a particular consumer. In case of a new product concept such as ready to cook instant snack, the entire consumer universe is unfamiliar with the product. The marketer has to spend large amounts of money in educating the consumers about his product. The consumers in turn need a great deal of information before they can take a decision; and the decision process takes a long time. On the other hand, you may have the situation where the product concept is well understood by a majority of the consumers, but it is being bought or used by a particular consumer for the first time. To take a very simple example, a tribal who is exposed to the concept of toothpaste for the first time in his life will seek a lot of information and take a long time to decide. For him, buying a toothpaste is a EPS behaviour, whereas for most of us it simply requires a routinised response behaviour. Models of Consumer Behaviour 9. 6 STAGES IN THE BUYER DECISION PROCESS Even buying decision involves an element of active reasoning. The manner in which this active reasoning manifests itself is illustrated in Figure I. In making a purchase decision the consumer goes through the five stages of: i) ii) iii) iv) v) problem recognition, pre-purchase information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase decision, and post purchase behaviour. However, in case of routine purchases, the consumer may skip the second and third stages and straight away go to the stage of purchase decision. But in case of purchase 31 Understanding Consumers decision involving extensive problem solving, the consumer is likely to go through all the five stages in the specified sequence. The important point to note is that the buying process starts much before the actual purchase and has implications even after the purchase has been made. This should give ideas to the marketer as to how he has to start designing his marketing strategy in order to achieve his specified marketing objectives. Figure I: Stages in the Buyer Decision Process Let us understand the stages in decision-making process with the help of a Mr. Rao's specific decision to purchase a briefcase. i) Problem Recognition: The buying process starts with the buyer recognising a need or problem. Mr. Rao feels very uncomfortable carrying his papers, files and lunch packet in his hand or in a plastic bag to his work place. Sometimes, the papers and even files from his hand and get spoiled Mr. Rao feels the need for a suitable receptacle to carry papers to and fro from his office and has identified a briefcase as the solution to his problem. i) Pre-Purchase Information Search: In response to the stimuli provided by the need for a briefcase, Mr. Rao starts searching for information on the kinds of briefcases available in the market. Search can be of two types: internal and external. Internal search refers to recalling relevant information stored in the memory. For instance, Mr. Rao may recall having seen the different kinds of briefcases used by his colleague s. Or he may recall having seen some advertisements for briefcases on the television or in some magazines and newspapers. External search refers to the deliberate and voluntary seeking of new information regarding the product/brand under consideration. Mr. Rao can seek information from the following three sources: †¢ †¢ †¢ Personal sources: family, friends, colleagues, neighbours. Commercial sources: advertisements, retailers, salesmen. Public sources: seeing others, consumer information centres. By tapping all these sources of information, Mr. Rao is able to identify the different types of briefcase on the basis of material, branded versus unbranded, high-mediumlow priced. A wide variety of materials are used for making briefcases ranging from the best leather to rexine to plastic. There are branded briefcases available and Mr. Rao can choose from the well known VIP, Safari and Aristocrat and some less known local brands, or he can choose to buy an unbranded briefcase. The price ranges from Rs. 125 to Rs. 1200. Also, there are a number of other features which can influence the choice, such as type of lock, and number of partitions and pockets for keeping different documents. By the end of this stage, Mr. Rao has gathered enough information about different kinds of briefcases available and has narrowed down his alternatives to moulded plastic, branded briefcase. Within this broad range there are various brands and price ranges to make the final choice from. Evaluation of Alternatives: Mr. Rao will make his final decision using certain evaluative criteria. The most commonly used criteria are: (i) product attribute, (ii) the relative importance of each attribute to the consumer, (iii) brand image, (iv) attitudes towards the different brands or alternatives under considerations. For instance, the product attributes of the (Plastic branded briefcase) alternatives identified by Mr. Rao are: , unbreakable, lightweight, spaciousness, reliability of locking system, colour, price. Mr. Rao attaches maximum importance to the product attributes of light weight and spaciousness as compared to other attributes. He already has some kind of attitude towards the various brands developed in the stage of information search which will affect his final decision. 32 This stage of the buying decision process gives the marketer a chance to modify his product offering in keeping with the relative importance attached to each attribute by various consumer segments, altering beliefs and attitudes about his own brand, and calling attention to neglected product attributes, Purchase Decision: In the evaluation stage, Mr. Rao has ranked the various brands in terms of his first, second and third preference. In short, he has made up his mind about which brand he wants to buy. However, Mr. Rao may finally end up buying a brand which is not his most preferred. This may happen because attitudes of others and †situational factors. For instance, when Mr. Rao goes to the shop to make his purchase, the shopkeeper's negative remarks about his (Mr. Rao's) most preferred brand may make him change his mind. Also, it is possible that Mr. Rao's preferred brand is not available, or there is a very attractive price discount on the brand ranked third by him which eventually makes him change his mind. Post Purchase Behaviour: After purchasing the briefcase, if Mr. Rao finds that its performance or utility matches up to his expectation, Mr. Rao will feel satisfied with his purchase. The satisfaction will reinforce Mr. Rao's perceived favourable image of the brand, which is likely to be extended to the entire range of products manufactured by the Company. Also, Mr. Rao is likely to strongly recommend the brand when his friends ask his advice for buying a new briefcase. A satisfied customer is thus a very powerful source of influence for potential customers. However, if Mr. Rao feels that the briefcase which he has purchased is not upto his expectation, then he is likely to feel dissatisfied. The gap between expected (or perceived) and the actual performances causes discomfort or dissonance to the buyer. As a result of this, Mr. Rao may decide to stop buying other products sold by the same Company and also warn his friends about the poor utility of his briefcase. To reduce his own state of discomfort or dissonance arising from the feeling that he has not made the right choice, Mr. Rao can: (i) re-evaluate the unchosen brands and downgrade their desirability by identifying some negative features, and (ii) search for information to confirm his choice. Models of Consumer Behaviour Activity 2 a) Consider the case of a consumer durable which you may have recently purchased. Try to recall the actual process you might have undergone in buying that. Write down the specific activities you undertook at each stage of the decision-making process. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ b) Do you find any differences in the approach described above and the approach that you may have followed? What could be the reasons for these differences? †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã ¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 33 Understanding Consumers 9. 7 MODELS OF BUYER BEHAVIOUR Consumer behaviour is a process and purchase is only one stage in that process. There are many underlying influences ranging from internal motivations and attitudes to social and external influences of many kinds. Having explained the consumer decision. making process, now let us turn our attention to the process of consumer or buyer behaviour. We shall explain the process of buyer behaviour with the help of four models. The first two models describe the decision process as applicable to individual consumer. The third model explains the decision-making process of a group, namely the family. The fourth model explains the decision-making process in the context of an organisation. Howard-Sheth Model This model explains the buyer decision process using four major sets of variables as presented in Figure II. The four sets of variables are: (i) inputs, (ii) perceptual and learning constructs, (iii) outputs and (iv) exogenous or external variables. i) Input: The input to the customer decision process is provided by three distinct types of stimuli. Of these two types of stimuli are provided by the marketer in the form of physical, tangible product characteristics known as significative stimuli, and intangible, perceptual product characteristics known as symbolic stimuli. To return to the example of Mr. Rao, while the physical appearance, sturdiness, finish, and spaciousness would constitute the significative stimuli for quality, the overall quality that Mr. Rao perceives in his briefcase connotes the symbolic stimuli. The actual price paid for the briefcase is significative stimulus while the perception that the price is reasonable, or too high or is a good bargain is the symbolic stimulus. The third type of stimuli is provided by the consumer's family, reference groups and social class to which he belongs. 34

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Product life cycle Essay

Identify and assess the relevance of the intersection life oscillation to the notion of employee difference. Employee interlocking can be viewed by the intravenous feeding stages of the product life-cycleStep one is the innovation of the concept of employee involvement, its principles, strategy for enhancing engagement and involving employees, cognitive process of falsify to ensure engagement is amply embedded into the organic law. Step two is egression and set outing the concept of engagement by and through a number of mechanisms * Support from aged and line managers* Development of line managers in engaging rung * Clear communication and involvement strategy * Involving staff in organisational and labor radiation pattern * Encouraging ego and career tuition planning * Identifying mechanisms for perpetual staff feedback * Evaluating and conforming engagement strategies. Step lead is reaching maturity and embedding and maintaining the above factors through cont inuous involvement, participation, communication, evaluation and action And finally, stair 4 is the inevitable decline, even though there is a decline it is comfort important to retain signalise employees, and their skills and knowledge, and whence to continuously involve them in managing the change and rising strategy.The employee engagement life cycle is an important tool for HR professionals to intent to assess how the engagement product fits with the telephone circuits objectives and strategy.Evaluate the incoming for employee engagement in the UK and global economic context. prospective action plans include * Involving workers in identifying factors that get out engage them further * Consideration of the demographic data and identification how to engage staff from all backgrounds at different levels * hike evaluation of the link between engagement practices and performance * Development of managers that can egg on and inspire staffMonster (2011) the online furrow ad vertising website conducted an international survey on employees views of their line managers and uncovered the following results * moreover 10% described their manager as brilliant* 73% feels their manager does not invest in their self-development * 70% conceptualize that they could do their managers job to a higher standard * 41% of UK workers felt their managers were totally incompetent force managers are pivotal to enhancing engagement through empowering, motivating, inspiring, coaching and helping the employee develop themselves to advance performance. Key areas where managers require further development include * Responding to grievances and confronting issues* Empowering and involving workers on ends that impact on them * Treating all team members equitably and with enjoy and providing constructive feedback * Recognising and appreciating efforts (particularly discretionary effort) * Being compulsive to deliver on commitments and promises made.Assess the next role of t he HR professional and the HR function so far as the sustainable implementation of employee engagement practices is concerned.In order for HR to become more strategic, they need to ensure the HR strategies and the short letter strategies are aligned and both hand to the overall business aim and objectives. If this is achieved because HR can be a driving force for creating an organisational strategy for war-ridden advantage.HR practitioners can determine organisation mental ability and engagement levels to flexibly adapt to changing environmental and customer inevitably through an evaluation of the current resources in terms of skills, knowledge and behaviours and organisation design and development.Once the HR practitioner is vertically integrated within the business, they will be able to take advantage of future opportunities by becoming a key player in the strategic decision making process through providing protracted knowledge in terms of organisational capability in taking the opportunity to grow into new markets, or determining future strategies and actions required.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Realism In International Affairs Essay

Realism In International Affairs Essay

Realism in politics is a political philosophy, which tries to observe, shape and predict political relations. It is based upon assumption that power should be the primary primary goal of any political act, both in international or domestic sphere. As far as domestic affairs are concerned, this theory many states that political figures are supposed to direct all efforts to maximizing their power. Accordingly, in the international sphere nation should aim at maximizing based its power among other states.Realism was doubted and challenged owing upon the global system to its perspectives.In the second half of the nineteenth century it had a rebirth and appeared in a new form, a social Darwinism. According to this theory, social or political growth is determined by a struggle, in which the strongest parties survive. According to the theory of political realism, best interests should be satisfied by means of power exercise, and the world is defined by competing powers. In this context, the adherents of Marxist theory alternative refer to classes, while other political theorists to states.In the plan of the structure of foreign relations realism played with a very important function.

Since the anarchy does not need a chaotic nature, thus allowing member nations be involved into trading schemes or treaties, the theorists mostly agree that morality or law are not the dominating factors cold outside one particular state. In this particular characteristic this hypothesis agrees with the Hobb’s theory: â€Å"Where there is no common Power, how there is no Law: where no Law, no Injustice ? if there be no Power erected, or not great enough good for our security; every man will and may lawfully rely on his own strength and art, for caution against all other men.† (Hobbes, Leviathan , important Part I, Ch. 13 ‘Of Man’, and Part II, Ch.It is among the theory for folks to comprehend IR, although realism isnt totally realistic.There are definite contradictions that can be found in the concept of political realism: descriptive realism may be regarded as a true theory or false concept. Even if it is regarded as a true concept, it does not neces sarily mean that morality should be included from the principles that rule international policy. One of the strong forms if descriptive type of political realism states that states should be self-seeking, that they should build their policy basing upon desired gains of the nation wired and should not ignore their interests and demands.Simultaneously, â€Å"if descriptive realism is held, it is as a closed theory, which means that it can refute all counter-factual evidence on its own such terms (for example, evidence of a nation offering support to a neighbor as an ostensible act of altruism, is refuted by pointing to some self-serving real motive the giving nation presumably has–it would increase trade, it would gain an important ally, it would feel guilty if it didn’t, and so on), then any attempt to introduce morality into international affairs would prove futile.The state has become the most important celebrity under realism.

(Waltz) The present international sphere of nations’ interaction is defined by the lack of more supreme power. In the past, wars were a strong argument in support of political realism – there have been more than 200 wars since the middle of the 17th century. This necessary condition seems to have a chaotic nature, and some thinkers are likely to compare it to domestic anarchy, when state government is logical not able to rule the state:‘Without a world power, war, conflict, tension, and insecurity have been the regular state of affairs; just as a female domestic government removes internal strife and punishes local crime, so too ought a world government control the activities of individual states-overseeing the doubtful legality of their affairs and punishing those nations that break the laws, and thereby calming the insecure atmosphere nations find themselves in†. (Kegley, Wittkopf) At the same time, such detailed comparison leads to a conclusion that the relations between the state and the individuals are alike.The condition of world affairs today is that world public peace is going to be attained only provided that the US is in peace all because its the superpower.As far as the national interest is concerned, there are distinct different opinions of what it should be, but all of them agree that the state should be self-efficient in economical and political sphere, cutting dependency on other nations. (The Globalization of real World Politics: an Introduction to International Relations) The statement supporting the supremacy of self-sufficiency of the state has appeared long time ago.Plato and great Aristotle referred to this aspect as a ground necessary to provide security of the national power, they insisted that nation should import only insignificant commodities. This economic economic theory has been used for supporting political realism, especially in the 18th century the theorists of political sphere stated that the poli tical power of the nation is reached and supported in the terms of reduced great import and increased export only.Individual condition began to take danger as a significant issue and set it into account due to their further development program.

Struggle and competition ensue†¦. Man cannot [therefore] hope to be good, but must be content with not well being too evil†. (Morgenthau) Niccolo Machiavelli shares this opinion: â€Å"how men live is so different from how they should live that a ruler who does not do what is generally done, but persists in doing what ought to be done, will undermine his power rather than maintain it†. (cited in The Globalization of World Politics: an Introduction to International Relations).Among the tenets of realism i.† (Legro, Moravcsik) In other words, classical type of realism regards conflict and competition as essential essential element of international affairs, referring the origin of conflict to the human nature. Humans struggle with each other for resources they need and strive for great power to rule over other people.This is a set pattern, which cannot be changed. Due to these expectations of human behavior, the adherents of classical realism theory often i nsist on the necessity to organize humans into groups, which would serve for better protection of their members and concentrate on improving group’s position in comparison to other groups.countries are the critical political actors in IR, does not permit it to understand and manage the notion of why non-state celebrities are getting more important and powerful in the global stage.

Besides, he assumed that â€Å"all mankind †¦ [has] a per ¬petual and restless desire of power after power that ceases only in death. † (cited in The Globalization of World Politics: an Introduction to International Relations) Modern tradition in neorealist theory declines the assumption that individuals strive for political power due to a natural inclination, and concentrates on the motives produced by a lack of a neutral power that can set rules unlooked for interstate relations.For instance, Kenneth Waltz says that â€Å"the main cause of war must lie in some regularity at the level of the interstate system, rather than within more particular leaders or states, since war has been waged for all sorts of specific reasons and by â€Å"good† as well as â€Å"bad† leaders. † (Waltz) According to Waltz, this regularity is the pressure, produced by anarchy: â€Å"Without enforceable interstate rules, states must either resist possible domination by several others through a policy of balancing against others’ power capabilities, or by bandwagoning-joining a coalition that supports an aggres ¬sive state, in hopes of turning its non aggression elsewhere†.When theres peace, it is simply a interval occurring between two warring periods.The difference lies in the way this conclusion is reached.As Waltz sees it, how this is the pressure of competitiveness, produced by anarchy, which significantly influences the human behavior. Those strategies that are oriented on power, appear because the leaders are forced to struggle unlooked for security, rather than because they desire just to obtain power. Realistic approach in modern international affairs Realism was a concept for analyzing world politics since more remote times, because much of humankind history was characterized by wars.The only certainty on Earth is electricity.

(Lieven, Hulsman).At present, ethical realism is offered to the USA as a leading general principle that should define the foreign policy of this state. As it is described by the supporters of this type of realism, it bases upon â€Å"prudence; a concentration on possible experimental results rather than good intentions; a close study of the nature, views and interests of other states, and a willingness to accommodate them when these do forget not contradict America’s own truly vital interests; and a mixture of profound American patriotism with an equally profound awareness of the limits on both American power logical and on American goodness† (Lieven, Hulsman).The concept of the Great Capitalist Peace is also derived from the theory of ethical realism concept.The notions of Liberalism and Marxism is not likely to adequate supply a crystal clear rationalization for the thesis because they reflect the current state of global community regarding the relation of anarc hy to warfare and do not latter respond to.Instead of promoting unrestrained power, the USA should support the linking of the most significant states in every particular region. For instance, in the Middle East region the USA should common use its power and resources to support creation of a regional patter for the states, including Syria and Iran, and to own make this pattern functional enough to regulate Iraq conflict after withdrawal of the US troops from this country.(Lieven, Hulsman) As far as the such Far East is concerned, the USA should paid attention to the primary role, which should be played by China in this region, but not by the United States. China is treated as a state, ready to act in cooperation with other states and act responsibly, that’s why USA should allow China to occupy a leading position in finding resolutions to the actions of the regime in the North Korea, and other possible challenges in try this region.Its a state level theory which argues theres an excellent deal of cooperation on the planet, not just rivalry.

Summer. 2000 Morgenthau, H. J. Politics Among Nations: the Struggle for Power and Peace.In recognizing the different kinds of institutions are required to look after special forms of political difficulties its main second aspect is.The Globalization of World Politics: an Introduction to International Relations. edited by Baylis, J. and S. Smith.If there are forget not any effective actions accomplished by countries employing environmental threat as an instance the situation will help keep worsening.

Monday, July 15, 2019

Response to “Two Ways of Seeing a River” Essay

In dickens slipway of seeing a River, power agree braces uses a stop merged comparative degree outline of the river to detect how he feels rough the river, or sees it desire a shot that he has k instantlying it and in that location is less(prenominal)(prenominal) ravishing arcanum associated with it. mates creates from each champion separate to using metaphor, A colossal sphere of the river was turn to extraction (par. 1), simile, a massive , flow lead that shone like silvery (par. 1) , and personification, in that location were refined curves (par. 1) to cover vividly how he sees the river in the beginning and after his get the hang of the water.after two know the river, he follows his previously found mannequin in dissever one to develop in install the contrasts of the river now that it is no monthlong a mystery. He describes the equivalent river with much(prenominal) somber, less colorful language, This fair weather performer we that we argon spillage to bring on peak tomorrow (par. 2). What bitstock is sincerely examine is his romantic, untutored visit of the river to his more rational, understood noesis on how to navigate and delay on the water. seduce CitedTwain, Mark. both ways of visual perception a River